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Familial hypercholesterolaemia is an inherited condition caused by an alteration in a gene, which results in a high cholesterol concentration in the blood. Raised cholesterol concentrations are present from birth and lead to early development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The condition is transmitted from generation to generation in such a way that siblings and children of a person with FH have a one in two chance (50:50 risk) of also having FH.